Сила знаний








Уроки Совы Филиновны


Higher Education

- I am going to go America to educate there. How that I am eager to clear up some questions about it. Will you help me?
- Of course I’ll do it anyway.
- Nice of you to say that. First of all I’d like you to explain me. How successful applicants are chosen at colleges at leading universities.
- I’ll explain it with great pleasure. These applicants are chosen on the basis of a) Their high school records, b) recommendations, c) their scores on the scholastic aptitude tests.
- Well, I see. But does the system of higher education on the us comprise there categories of institution?
- That’s right. These there categories of institutions are: 1) the university, which may contain several colleges for under graduate students, 2) the technical training institutions, 3) the two – year, or community college.
- Well, I see! But can be they public or private?
- No doubt. These institutions can be private or public and it depends on the source of its funding.
- A future student will have himself in factors determining the quality of education what institutions can you suggest to me?
- The most selective are the old private north – eastern universities such as Harvard Radcliffe, Princeton University, and University of Pennsylvania.
- What can you say about their traditions?
- Certainly. These traditions make a great influence on their reputation.
- What else must Americans also know about universities?
- Everyone has to know information about Professional degrees such as a Bachelor of Law, or a Bachelor of Divinity.
- I don’t want to annoy you? But I’d like to know something about the requirements for a Master’s or Doctor’s degree.
- You may read more detailed information in some handbooks or guides.
- I see, you are not a chatterbox, you prefer to speak in a short way. But explain me the question about the credits.
- It depends on the number of hours of work involved. They are earned by attending lectures and by successfully completing assignments and examinations.
- Are credits for the academic work transferable among universities?
- Yes, they are.
- Many thanks for your assistance.
- Don’t mention it. It wasn’t any difficulty for me.

The problem of the court in the USA

- Let’s discuss the problem of the courts in the USA. I know the courts are the overseers of the law. No matter who the man is, everybody should know something about the court.
- I quite agree with you. They administer the law, they resolve disputes under it.
- It each state served by the separate court system.
- Yes, that is so. State and federal system are organized into three basic levels of courts i.e. trial courts intermediate courts of appeal and a high court, or Supreme Court.
- And what are, the state courts concerned with?
- They are concerned essentially with cases arising under state law.
- And what about federal ones?
- Oh, they are concerned with cases arising under federal law.
- No matter how difficult it is to remember, but I want to know about trial courts more detailed.
- Will these courts include common pleas courts, municipal courts, county courts and mayors’ courts?
- Which of them is the most important?
- Of course the common pleas court is the most important. It is the court of general jurisdiction.
- Any civil on criminal cases may be brought here, may not they.
- Yes, of course.
- How, I see and what about probate and domestic division.
- Well, in short the probate division deals with wills and the administration of estates etc. and the domestic division deals with divorce, alimony, child custody.
- This division deserves nothing but great attention and what about the juvenile division?
- This division has jurisdiction over delinquent, unruly or neglected children and over adults.
- How do you think what is the main job of courts.
- No doubt it is to review cases appealed from trial courts to determine if the law was correctly interpreted and applied.
- The Supreme Court of each state is primarily a court of appeal and the court of last resort, isn’t it?
- Sure, it is.
- What is the federal court structure like?
- It is similar to the structure of the state court system. The trail courts in the federal system are the U.S. district courts.
- What is the highest court in the nation?
- The Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation. It consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices
- Whom are they appointed by?
- They are appointed for life by the President with the advice and Consent of the Senate.
- What is its duty?
- Its duty is to decide whether laws passed by the Constitution.
- I am very pleased to know all this. And I hope it will help me in my future work as a lawyer.

Difficult children

- This year I’ll graduate from the university. And I am going to work at school. But children are in the first place at school. Though they sat I am meant to be a teacher. Sometimes I am afraid of so called “difficult” children.
- You see, “difficult” children are not a problem in comparison with many other problems.
- Nevertheless the problem deserves much attention of necessary. But one must concentrate all the efforts to understand the children, who to some extend are unhappy, who are inclined to use for example, drugs, to destroy order, and waste the greater part of the day.
- I am glad you to have a shift in your opinion, calling “difficult” children – unhappy. You may absorb much information about youth problems from magazines and newspapers, which confirm the fact, that working with children 1st of all you are to love them in spite of the fact they are children of awful habits.
- Well, I understood that to have success in future work with children. I love a way with these children. I’d like to talk with some experienced teaches who will be able to describe their long – termed work with much detail. No doubt, it will be of great importance for me.
- You must not only to learn the children themselves, but their families as well, who are in a light corner. You must be very convincible working with such families.
- Of course, I want to work at school though I am not so elated but I hope to find good relations with the children, and may be they won’t be “difficult” no longer.
- Good luck. Really. You are must be a teacher, no difficult frighten you.

Customs and holidays

- Many people like to celebrate different holidays now days. As you know the holidays are different: they may be – international, national, local, family, political, and cultural and others. Which of them do you prefer?
- There is a proverb: My home is my fortress. That is why I like family holidays ordinary though they are.
- By the way I quite agree with you on account of that fact that all the people love their families. First of all we like birthday parties. We prepare for them carefully.
- Certainly birthday parties – are the purest ones we put a fortune tree in the living room and decorate it with lanterns, crackers, with birthday wishes.
- Don’t make haste. Tell about the fortune tree in details.
- It is not so extraordinary we put a branch of a tree in a bowl. Then hang paper toys, sweets, crakes with wishes in it. And everyone is pleased to receive any prize.
- Great. I see you at your best. And what other family holidays do you celebrate except birthday?
- Well they are different family anniversaries: entering school, finishing it, entering the university and graduation from it, the anniversary of wedding party and so on.
- Well I see. It is so pleasant to be together with your relatives to make head or tall the sorrows, the troubles, the happiness of each other. By the way tomorrow is my birthday and I invite you.
- Certainly I’ll come and I want to suggest you to make place markers for your guests, decorating them with colored paper balloons with the name of your guests. I am sure they will know your party will be more joyful and interesting.
- Thanks a lot of. Doesn’t forget: tomorrow at 5 o’clock in the evening. My address is Flat 1. 54 Forest Street.
- Don’t worry. I‘ll be in time and by the way I want to clear up know are you about folklore?
- I like folk dances and songs and I want to show you my folk Russian dress.
- Oh, you have made it yourself!
- With a help of my relatives. I want you to hear Russian folk songs tomorrow. I know many of them. By the way my relatives can play folk instruments and we have a good time, resting together.
- It is curious. I hope I’ll like it too. I like Russian songs too.

A problem child

- All I can think is the problem of problem children and problem parents?
- It makes me angry to hear this why? This theme seems simple if important.
- You set much store by this problem.
But you see if people i.e. parents bring up their children there are no problem children.
- I don’t agree. I think the parents should have a very with their children. And it isn’t easy. I can tell you.
- How is that you can’t understand that there is nothing to worry about. Children must obey their parents. Parent must look after their children. And that is all.
- I wanted to finish the discussion but I decided not to do, because some pupils are in very different conditions. E.g. their parents are drugs – addicted or have other harmful habits. They got their children rattled.
- I wouldn’t go so far as to take it5 seriously. Because there are not so many people with harmful habits.
- Look here unfortunately there are many problem children and problem parents, because of unpleasant condition in the society: e.g. unemployment, shortage of money, a high level of divorces and of course the school is involved in all these processes.
- It’s your look out. No doubt there should be two sided. Promotion concerning parents and children.

My first teaching experience

- I’ve heard that you had passed your first school – practice? What are your impressions?
No matter how difficult it was, I liked it. But you also had passed the first school practice, hadn’t you?
- Well, frankly speaking it was interesting for me to communicate with schoolchildren of different ages.
- Now that we are rather experienced we are not annoyed with the process of teaching.
-Really after my first school practice I have nothing but satisfaction.
- While being at practice I fond out that many pupils are smart.
- I’d like to tell you about one of the most interesting case during my practice in exchange.
- You are welcome. I want to reluctant to listen to your story.
- I see you make a fuss about it?
- Why not?
- Well one day, the pupils asked me too many questions at the lesson. I was at a loss. I understood that I know not much. I was ashamed.
- The matter was urgent wasn’t it?
- I decided to study very interesting stuff in different spheres.
- What have you done?
- I studied much valuable various information.
- What was the result?
- What brought about your relations with children?
- When they understood that I am well educated. They could entrust me.
- Well. Though it was our first practice, we realized we could bring the children.

TV – a national disease

- I assure you that TV has positive and negative influences.
- Certainly I am not opposed to this question. But I think needn’t worry about it; the TV leadership knows its way about and can find a necessary way out.
- I will say this for TV it taught me a lot.
- Sure, some TV programmes are valuable. Nowadays cable television, satellite televisions are widely spread.
- I prefer current affairs and nature life programmes.
- I see as to me I am fond sports programmes and sitcoms.
- Of course TV has much positive influence. It is modern, can be portable, interesting and exciting.
- But from the other hand. TV becomes commercial; there are too many thrillers, soap operas much violence.
- And the screen time is too expensive.
- I am annoyed with the advertisement.
- So do I. I think they should reduce the time of the advertisement.
- No matter how negative TV seems to be it has great future.

Family life

- In todays conversation I would like to concentrate of major problems of young couples, because not so long ago my brother has married. First his wife and he were meant for each other. And now..?
- Well, I myself am going to marry. And this problem is in the first place for me. Can you describe with much detail the problems of your married brother?
- When a young family was confirmed by the parents, all the finical problems were out – of – the – way. But then on account of young couple wanted to be independent parents stopped their support some problems appeared.
- You wanted drop a hint. They made ends meet.
- Exactly!
- And to avoid the problems both husband and wife should entrust each other and then their marriage will be effective.
- And what about love and looking up to.
- Sure. When young couples find fault with each other their marriage will fail under any circumstances.

The only way to travel is on foot

- I guess there are some pros and contras of the fast that the only way to travel is on foot.
- I have my feet on the ground that travelling on foot is of great importance I don’t object to travel on foot myself.
- It seems to me you have pos for this kind of traveling. I am not where you like, you may stay at any peace and it is not expensive. You are reluctant resting either near the lake or at the river.
- To my mind traveling on foot is the healthiest way to go about the country because you are not rattled by the air freshness.
- You drop a hint that it is useful to travel on foot.
- Exactly.
- But any traveling must have its pros and contras what about the contras of traveling on foot.
- Certainly. But I ask you not chatter like a magpie.
- Sorry. But nevertheless don’t wash your hands of the discussion.
- As far as I am concerned to be out of doors – isn’t very pleasure. The weather may be changeable, and you may be very tied of going to long.
- I don’t object to this point of view. But the thing is that you must be very attentive in order not to be in trouble.

What makes a good teacher?

- The question about teaching is more popular than ever.
- Really! What an importance it must have been to our society.
- It is because of everybody is involved in the process of teaching.
- The first and most important thing I have to tell you that some people have an inform gift for teaching.
- I really do remember that of course a good teacher must have an inform gift for teaching. But not only it!
- You have some contras of the informal gift don’t you?
- I am inclined that an informal gift as a matter of fact is vital. But I prefer the opinion that the skill of teaching can be taught.
- I don’t shift my ground. I know some examples, when good teachers without necessary pedagogical education, are good teachers indeed. They are teachers by their origin. There are meant for being teachers.
This opinion is attractive of interesting. But in comparison with it, the teacher must be a person of high qualification.
- Thus he must know too much.
- So a good teacher must confirm his high appointment to serve the business of pupils’ education.

All happy resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.
- A Great Russian poet L. Tolstoy has his own world – knows point of concerning happy and unhappy families. Do you purely consent to it?
- As far as I am able to judge each family is individual, all the families can’t resemble one another.
- Here I differ with you. When the families are full, parents are serious, they earn much to maintain the families, they take care of their children, and they may resemble each other.
- I must say I can see no reason oppose. Perhaps you are right. Really if the parents don’t pay attention to their children, can’t support they families also resemble each other, i.e. unhappy families also resemble each other.
- The question is whether we speak about the financial conditions. But I am lost in wonder why rich families may be happy.
-Sometimes I also can’t make head or tail of it. But it seems to me that happiness is not only in money.
- Those families, where is agreement, love, respected are happy, but where we have no such qualities, we speak of unhappy families.
- Therefore each family is a special individual part of the society. Each family has it own way of development. And it is impossible to divide all the families into the happy and unhappy ones.

An ideal family – a myth or reality.

(What is your idea of ideal family?)

- An ideal family is more like a myth than reality in modern life?
- I should never have thought that discussion the problem of the ideal family is such a difficult thing.
- May be it’s really purely a matter of taste!
- Speaking my mind and ideal family is a myth, because an ideal family can’t be in ordinary life.
- It’s precisely what I am going to speak about. Every family has always some problems.
- Unfortunately many members of the family don’t stir a finger to help each other and that is why there are problems. And an ideal family can’t exist in reality.
- Perhaps we shouldn’t judge so bitterly. I know some families where there is love; understanding and respect i.e. there are ideal families. It’s reality.
- An ideal family is a lifetime dream, because a family can’t exist isolated independently from the society. And there is ideal society. So an ideal family is a myth to my mind.
- Don’t be so pessimistic. As far as I am concerned every person creates his own fate. If there is a purpose of creating and ideal family you may have it. Everything depends on us ourselves. If we believe in positive and try to do the best for it, everything will be OK.
- Tastes differ. But I quite agree with you that we ourselves can create and ideal family.

Should drug addiction and prostitution entail legal prosecution?
(What do you think of the causes of these phenomena?)
- No matter how hard the question about drug addiction and prostitution is, we couldn’t ignore it, because at present these processes are more popular than we would like to have.
- Exactly. My personal opinion is that it goes even further than that I can’t agree with those who denies legal prosecution of drug addiction and prostitution.
- But why? If some people want to deal with it perhaps let them do it!
- I’m not sure you are right about it. These things are immoral, they are harmful for people. We can’t forget about it.
- Here I differ with you. As it is known “Forbidden fruit is always sweet” Many people, especially young, try to use something. Extraordinary.
- I am inclined to think that you approve it? I must say I can see no reason to agree. Drug addiction and prostitution demonstrate the lowest qualities of the person. The society must help people to avoid these habits.
- But as far as understand. It is not easy to breakaway drug addiction and prostitution.
- Sure. First of all the person himself must realize the necessity to have a healthy way of life.
- And many people: relatives, friends, doctors are also involved in this difficult situation.
- Therefore in my opinion, there’s no place for prostitution and drug addiction in the society.

Married or single?

- My congratulations, to your recent marriage. I’d like to know whether you make haste or not?
- As far as can realize I didn’t commit an error. I really lost my heart to my husband.
- You want to say that you are meant for each other.
- I want to remind you of the fact that practically we my husband and me were acquainted for many years. And we hadn’t any confusion.
- So you drop a hint, that being married is better than being single?
- I don’t drop a hint. I know exactly, where you have a family with a favorite person you are lucky.
- It seems to me you don’t have the least notion of some disadvantages being married.
- Of course I’m married not so long ago, but I don’t want to think about the disadvantages concerning marriage.
- You are so inspired! But I’m not embarrassed that I’m single.
- Well, Now I understand why you are again marriage because you single.
- Don’t have such a rough tongue. But I want to open your eyes to some couple problems. I don’t want to marry, until I understand that my future spouse is my real second half.
- But according to you people mustn’t marry at all.
- Of course, tastes are differ! Some people fail in marriage, some fail being alone.
- I suggest when you are alone, you are unhappy, and when you have somebody’s love, care’ children you can’t be unhappy 1 that is you must be married.

Books and reading in our life.

- In spite of the new information technologies books take an important part in our life, I can tell you.
- What you say’s perfectly true I am also sure that reading is a source of information.
- You may be right, but I think it goes further than that, a lot of further. Reading reflects all the processes in our life.
- The point is that while reading you may feel all the events yourself.
- If you were asked to advise something to read, what would you choose?
- What I choose is connected with classic!
- Would like to add modern literature to your choice.
- Perhaps it is an excellent opportunity to be well – informed.
- And sometimes reading is more like a refuge for the lonely, when you want to forget everything and everybody.
- You are right in a way. It is necessary to be alone in some situations.
- Is and is reading taken up as a pastime?
- As to me reading is a wonderful pastime.
- What, what is reading really for you?
- It’s an important source of information for me I can tell you.

Television and children

- I think that nowadays television is the apple of our eyes.
- Do you really mean it?
- Yes, there’s nothing I like more than television.
- But I must say I am not too found of television.
- Why, isn’t that lovely?
- I am afraid television has some negative influence especially on children?
- What do you mean!
- First of all it is at a great sacrifice to children’s health.
- Really many parents can’t do a thing with their children. They won’t give up watching TV too much.
-Then children are involved in many adult actions such as violence, cruelty, etc.
- But in comparison with their information technologies. It is not so harmful!
- As far as I am able to judge, of course television has some positive influence first of all. There are interesting educational programmes.
- Now there are some children channels, eg. “Telenynya”, “Children world” which can parents brining the children up.
- And about the cultural development.
- Here you have my whole support!
So the point is that there should be measure in everything. Parents should regulate the time and the content of watching.

Men make houses, women make homes.

- As far as I am concerned the proverb “Men make houses, women make home is quite just.
- We should take into account that a man must do his best in order not to make ends meet.
- Well, as a matter of fact, a man must be able to give everything for his wife and children to live without problems. It concerns the material and the spiritual aspects.
-I think, I should point out the real family is based not only on the material aspect!
-In fact the home comfort is also of great importance. And just a woman is involved in it.
- You are quite right discomfort makes a man angry.
- And then many problems appear which may result in disgust or even in divorce.
-But I think all these problems avoidable if both men and women put wise about their family life.
- All I can say is if people want to have good relations in their families they should carry out the duties, according to their appointment: a man should build and support his house. A woman should take care of her home.

Books and reading

- Reading is very important and useful, I can tell you.
- I quite agree with you. I am not opposed to your opinion. Now is that everybody is interested in reading.
- Well, you see. Books suit us down to the ground from the very childhood. Where children like to read fairy tales. Which teach the people to be kind, since frank?
- And when we begin to have our feet on the ground books teach us to live in serious life. As you know books are different; they may be documentary, or books about adventures, about love, about nature, and of course there is much scientific literature.
- No doubt. Books cover a lot of ground. Books are our good friends I can tell you.
- It comes about that there are many own, private libraries full of wonderful, interesting books. By the way have you a home library?
- Yes, and I have some very ancient copies. Many generations of our family collected books. And I am proud of my collection I have some handbooks, different encyclopedias. I like to sit in the armchair and to read in silence, looking at the table lamp light.
- So do I. In flesh the books help us much. We are together during the whole life. Oh pardon me, my time is up. I am in a hurry. Our conversation was interesting for both.
- Well see you. If you find any ancient copy of the book, phone me, I’ll be very pleased to come by it.


Тетрадкин Град


Урок биологии

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